Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT1G75080.2
Common NameBIS2, BZR1, F9E10_7
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Family BES1
Protein Properties Length: 336aa    MW: 36485.6 Da    PI: 9.3896
Description BES1 family protein
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT1G75080.2genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
       DUF822   1 ggsgrkptwkErEnnkrRERrRRaiaakiyaGLRaqGnyklpkraDnneVlkALcreAGwvvedDGttyrkgskpleeaeaagssasaspesslqssl 98 
                  ++++rkp+w+ErEnn+rRERrRRa+aakiy+GLRaqG+y+lpk++DnneVlkALc eAGwvve+DGttyrkg+kpl   e+ag+s++++p ss+++s+
                  5899************************************************************************.********************* PP

       DUF822  99 kssalaspvesysaspksssfpspssldsislasaasllpvlsvlsl 145
                   ssa++sp++sy+ sp+sssfpsps+ + ++++s ++++p+l++ + 
                  ****************************999985.889999988764 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
PfamPF056879.1E-6121143IPR008540BES1/BZR1 plant transcription factor, N-terminal
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0009742Biological Processbrassinosteroid mediated signaling pathway
GO:0040008Biological Processregulation of growth
GO:0045892Biological Processnegative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0048316Biological Processseed development
GO:0048481Biological Processplant ovule development
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0005829Cellular Componentcytosol
GO:0003677Molecular FunctionDNA binding
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0005515Molecular Functionprotein binding
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000293anatomyguard cell
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 336 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
Nucleic Localization Signal ? help Back to Top
No. Start End Sequence
Expression -- UniGene ? help Back to Top
UniGene ID E-value Expressed in
At.286340.0flower| root
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
Expression AtlasAT1G75080-
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: Accumulates in the growing region of the hypocotyl. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11970900}.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIREncodes a positive regulator of the brassinosteroid (BR) signalling pathway that mediates both downstream BR responses and negative feedback regulation of BR biosynthesis. There is evidence for phosphorylation-dependent nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of BZR1. GSK3-like kinases (including BIN2), 14-3-3 proteins, and the phosphatase BSU1 seem to participate in this process. Phosphorylation also appears to affect BZR1's transcriptional activities.
UniProtTranscriptional repressor that binds to the brassinosteroid (BR) response element (BRRE) 5'-CGTG(T/C)G-3' in gene promoter. Regulates positively the brassinosteroid-signaling pathway. Mediates downstream growth responses and negative feedback regulation of brassinosteroid biosynthesis. Promotes growth. Modulates ovule initiation and development by monitoring the expression of genes related to ovule development (e.g. HLL, ANT, and AP2). {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15681342, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22914576}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. results show that BZR1 coordinates brassinosteroid (BR) homeostasis and signaling by playing dual roles in regulating BR biosynthesis and downstream growth responses
    [PMID: 15681342]
  2. BZR1 functions as a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein and GSK3-like kinases induce the nuclear export of BZR1 by modulating BZR1 interaction with the 14-3-3 proteins.
    [PMID: 17873094]
  3. BIN2 utilizes a direct kinase-substrate docking mechanism to phosphorylate BZR1 and regulate its protein stability
    [PMID: 20522560]
  4. Data show that BZR1 not only controls the expression of many signaling components of other hormonal and light pathways but also coregulates common target genes with light-signaling transcription factors.
    [PMID: 21074725]
  5. Data reveal a crucial function for PP2A in dephosphorylating and activating BZR1 and completes the set of core components of the brassinosteroid-signalling cascade from cell surface receptor kinase to gene regulation in the nucleus.
    [PMID: 21258370]
  6. BZR1 dissociates from the DWF4 (cytochrome P450 90B1) promoter in the presence of auxin, indicating DWF4 expression involves BZR1-mediated de-repression mechanisms.
    [PMID: 21284753]
  7. BZR1 and PIF4 interact with each other in vitro and in vivo, bind to nearly 2,000 common target genes, and synergistically regulate many of these target genes
    [PMID: 22820378]
  8. BZR1 and AP2 probably affect Arabidopsis ovule number determination antagonistically
    [PMID: 22914576]
  9. Data indicate that BZR1 interacts in vitro and in vivo with REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA), a member of the DELLA family of transcriptional regulators that inhibits the gibberellins (GAs) signaling pathway.
    [PMID: 23033541]
  10. role in regulation of glucosinolate biosynthesis by brassinosteroids
    [PMID: 23580754]
  11. The results suggest that AGB1 interacts with BIN2, but regulates the BR signalling in a BZR1-independent manner.
    [PMID: 23814276]
  12. Data indicate that conformational changes of BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1), mediated by cyclophilin (CYP20-2), may directly regulate the expression of FLOWERING LOCUS D (FLD) to influence flowering.
    [PMID: 23897924]
  13. BZR1-interacting proteins have been identified as potential components of the brassinosteroid signaling pathway in Arabidopsis.
    [PMID: 24019147]
  14. Phosphatidic acid decreased BZR1 dephosphorylation to inhibit BZR1 activity and brassinosteroid signal response by regulating PP2A activity.
    [PMID: 24121289]
  15. BZR1 acts as an important regulator mediating the trade-off between growth and immunity upon integration of environmental cues
    [PMID: 24381244]
  16. BZR1 represses target genes by recruiting the Groucho/TUP1-like transcriptional corepressor TOPLESS.
    [PMID: 24938363]
  17. BIL1/BZR1 increases plant resistance to insect feeding
    [PMID: 25036120]
  18. propose that the environmentally controlled developmental switch from deep to shallow root architecture involves reductions in BZR1 and BES1/BZR2 levels in the nucleus, which likely play key roles in plant adaptation to phosphate-deficient environments
    [PMID: 25136063]
  19. The amino-terminal and central parts of BES1 are responsible for its physical interaction with HSP90.3 in vitro. Additionally, BZR1 is a novel HSP90 partner aside from two BR signaling components previously identified as its clients.
    [PMID: 25778412]
  20. BZR1, a BES1 homologue, promotes cell divisions in the QC, but it suppresses columella stem cell differentiation, opposite to the action of BES1.
    [PMID: 26136267]
Binding Motif ? help Back to Top
Motif ID Method Source Motif file
Motif logo
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
Regulation -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtINDUCTION: By brassinosteroid (BR). {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15681342}.
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Target Genes) ? help Back to Top
Source Target Gene (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT2G43060(A), AT3G50660(R), AT4G38850(A), AT5G05690(R), AT5G39860(A)
Regulation -- Hormone ? help Back to Top
Source Hormone
Interaction ? help Back to Top
Source Intact With
IntActSearch Q8S307
Phenotype -- Disruption Phenotype ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtDISRUPTION PHENOTYPE: In bzr1-1D, weak dwarf phenotype with reduced hypocotyl and petiole lengths and dark green curled leaves when light-grown. Increased cell elongation in the dark. Hypersensitive to brassinosteroid (BR). {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15681342}.
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT1G75080
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankBT0154540.0BT015454.1 Arabidopsis thaliana At1g75080 mRNA sequence.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_565099.10.0brassinazole-resistant 1 protein
RefseqNP_974145.10.0brassinazole-resistant 1 protein
TrEMBLD7KSK20.0D7KSK2_ARALL; At1g75080/F9E10_7
STRINGAT1G75080.10.0(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Wang ZY, et al.
    Nuclear-localized BZR1 mediates brassinosteroid-induced growth and feedback suppression of brassinosteroid biosynthesis.
    Dev. Cell, 2002. 2(4): p. 505-13
  2. He JX,Gendron JM,Yang Y,Li J,Wang ZY
    The GSK3-like kinase BIN2 phosphorylates and destabilizes BZR1, a positive regulator of the brassinosteroid signaling pathway in Arabidopsis.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2002. 99(15): p. 10185-90
  3. Zhao J, et al.
    Two putative BIN2 substrates are nuclear components of brassinosteroid signaling.
    Plant Physiol., 2002. 130(3): p. 1221-9
  4. Yamada K, et al.
    Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome.
    Science, 2003. 302(5646): p. 842-6
  5. He JX, et al.
    BZR1 is a transcriptional repressor with dual roles in brassinosteroid homeostasis and growth responses.
    Science, 2005. 307(5715): p. 1634-8
  6. Kim HB, et al.
    The regulation of DWARF4 expression is likely a critical mechanism in maintaining the homeostasis of bioactive brassinosteroids in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2006. 140(2): p. 548-57
  7. Vert G,Chory J
    Downstream nuclear events in brassinosteroid signalling.
    Nature, 2006. 441(7089): p. 96-100
  8. Wang ZY, et al.
    The brassinosteroid signal transduction pathway.
    Cell Res., 2006. 16(5): p. 427-34
  9. M
    Molecular analysis of brassinosteroid action.
    Plant Biol (Stuttg), 2006. 8(3): p. 291-6
  10. Jin H,Li S,Villegas A
    Down-regulation of the 26S proteasome subunit RPN9 inhibits viral systemic transport and alters plant vascular development.
    Plant Physiol., 2006. 142(2): p. 651-61
  11. Haubrick LL,Assmann SM
    Brassinosteroids and plant function: some clues, more puzzles.
    Plant Cell Environ., 2006. 29(3): p. 446-57
  12. Belkhadir Y,Chory J
    Brassinosteroid signaling: a paradigm for steroid hormone signaling from the cell surface.
    Science, 2006. 314(5804): p. 1410-1
  13. Matsushita A,Furumoto T,Ishida S,Takahashi Y
    AGF1, an AT-hook protein, is necessary for the negative feedback of AtGA3ox1 encoding GA 3-oxidase.
    Plant Physiol., 2007. 143(3): p. 1152-62
  14. de Vries SC
    14-3-3 proteins in plant brassinosteroid signaling.
    Dev. Cell, 2007. 13(2): p. 162-4
  15. Gampala SS, et al.
    An essential role for 14-3-3 proteins in brassinosteroid signal transduction in Arabidopsis.
    Dev. Cell, 2007. 13(2): p. 177-89
  16. Bai MY, et al.
    Functions of OsBZR1 and 14-3-3 proteins in brassinosteroid signaling in rice.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2007. 104(34): p. 13839-44
  17. Ryu H, et al.
    Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of BZR1 mediated by phosphorylation is essential in Arabidopsis brassinosteroid signaling.
    Plant Cell, 2007. 19(9): p. 2749-62
  18. Tang W, et al.
    Proteomics studies of brassinosteroid signal transduction using prefractionation and two-dimensional DIGE.
    Mol. Cell Proteomics, 2008. 7(4): p. 728-38
  19. Yu X, et al.
    Modulation of brassinosteroid-regulated gene expression by Jumonji domain-containing proteins ELF6 and REF6 in Arabidopsis.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2008. 105(21): p. 7618-23
  20. Reiland S, et al.
    Large-scale Arabidopsis phosphoproteome profiling reveals novel chloroplast kinase substrates and phosphorylation networks.
    Plant Physiol., 2009. 150(2): p. 889-903
  21. Zhang LY, et al.
    Antagonistic HLH/bHLH transcription factors mediate brassinosteroid regulation of cell elongation and plant development in rice and Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2009. 21(12): p. 3767-80
  22. Park CH, et al.
    Brassinosteroids control AtEXPA5 gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Phytochemistry, 2010. 71(4): p. 380-7
  23. Rozhon W,Mayerhofer J,Petutschnig E,Fujioka S,Jonak C
    ASKtheta, a group-III Arabidopsis GSK3, functions in the brassinosteroid signalling pathway.
    Plant J., 2010. 62(2): p. 215-23
  24. Ryu H,Cho H,Kim K,Hwang I
    Phosphorylation dependent nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of BES1 is a key regulatory event in brassinosteroid signaling.
    Mol. Cells, 2010. 29(3): p. 283-90
  25. Ryu H,Kim K,Cho H,Hwang I
    Predominant actions of cytosolic BSU1 and nuclear BIN2 regulate subcellular localization of BES1 in brassinosteroid signaling.
    Mol. Cells, 2010. 29(3): p. 291-6
  26. Peng P,Zhao J,Zhu Y,Asami T,Li J
    A direct docking mechanism for a plant GSK3-like kinase to phosphorylate its substrates.
    J. Biol. Chem., 2010. 285(32): p. 24646-53
  27. Elrouby N,Coupland G
    Proteome-wide screens for small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) substrates identify Arabidopsis proteins implicated in diverse biological processes.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2010. 107(40): p. 17415-20
  28. Sun Y, et al.
    Integration of brassinosteroid signal transduction with the transcription network for plant growth regulation in Arabidopsis.
    Dev. Cell, 2010. 19(5): p. 765-77
  29. Shin R,Jez JM,Basra A,Zhang B,Schachtman DP
    14-3-3 proteins fine-tune plant nutrient metabolism.
    FEBS Lett., 2011. 585(1): p. 143-7
  30. Luo XM, et al.
    Integration of light- and brassinosteroid-signaling pathways by a GATA transcription factor in Arabidopsis.
    Dev. Cell, 2010. 19(6): p. 872-83
  31. Yu X, et al.
    A brassinosteroid transcriptional network revealed by genome-wide identification of BESI target genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant J., 2011. 65(4): p. 634-46
  32. Tang W, et al.
    PP2A activates brassinosteroid-responsive gene
    Nat. Cell Biol., 2011. 13(2): p. 124-31
  33. Hacham Y, et al.
    Brassinosteroid perception in the epidermis controls root meristem size.
    Development, 2011. 138(5): p. 839-48
  34. Chung Y, et al.
    Auxin stimulates DWARF4 expression and brassinosteroid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2011. 66(4): p. 564-78
  35. Reinhold H, et al.
    β-amylase-like proteins function as transcription factors in Arabidopsis, controlling shoot growth and development.
    Plant Cell, 2011. 23(4): p. 1391-403
  36. Di Rubbo S,Irani NG,Russinova E
    PP2A phosphatases: the "on-off" regulatory switches of brassinosteroid signaling.
    Sci Signal, 2011. 4(172): p. pe25
  37. Qu T, et al.
    Brassinosteroids regulate pectin methylesterase activity and AtPME41 expression in Arabidopsis under chilling stress.
    Cryobiology, 2011. 63(2): p. 111-7
  38. Kim TW,Guan S,Burlingame AL,Wang ZY
    The CDG1 kinase mediates brassinosteroid signal transduction from BRI1 receptor kinase to BSU1 phosphatase and GSK3-like kinase BIN2.
    Mol. Cell, 2011. 43(4): p. 561-71
  39. Kim TW,Michniewicz M,Bergmann DC,Wang ZY
    Brassinosteroid regulates stomatal development by GSK3-mediated inhibition of a MAPK pathway.
    Nature, 2012. 482(7385): p. 419-22
  40. Fan XY, et al.
    BZS1, a B-box protein, promotes photomorphogenesis downstream of both brassinosteroid and light signaling pathways.
    Mol Plant, 2012. 5(3): p. 591-600
  41. Zhang C, et al.
    Dynamics of brassinosteroid response modulated by negative regulator LIC in rice.
    PLoS Genet., 2012. 8(4): p. e1002686
  42. Bai MY, et al.
    Brassinosteroid, gibberellin and phytochrome impinge on a common transcription module in Arabidopsis.
    Nat. Cell Biol., 2012. 14(8): p. 810-7
  43. Oh E,Zhu JY,Wang ZY
    Interaction between BZR1 and PIF4 integrates brassinosteroid and environmental responses.
    Nat. Cell Biol., 2012. 14(8): p. 802-9
  44. Gallego-Bartolom
    Molecular mechanism for the interaction between gibberellin and brassinosteroid signaling pathways in Arabidopsis.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2012. 109(33): p. 13446-51
  45. Huang HY, et al.
    BR signal influences Arabidopsis ovule and seed number through regulating related genes expression by BZR1.
    Mol Plant, 2013. 6(2): p. 456-69
  46. Meinke DW
    A survey of dominant mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Trends Plant Sci., 2013. 18(2): p. 84-91
  47. Wang ZY,Bai MY,Oh E,Zhu JY
    Brassinosteroid signaling network and regulation of photomorphogenesis.
    Annu. Rev. Genet., 2012. 46: p. 701-24
  48. Li QF, et al.
    An interaction between BZR1 and DELLAs mediates direct signaling crosstalk between brassinosteroids and gibberellins in Arabidopsis.
    Sci Signal, 2012. 5(244): p. ra72
  49. Zhou XY,Song L,Xue HW
    Brassinosteroids regulate the differential growth of Arabidopsis hypocotyls through auxin signaling components IAA19 and ARF7.
    Mol Plant, 2013. 6(3): p. 887-904
  50. Ye H,Li L,Guo H,Yin Y
    MYBL2 is a substrate of GSK3-like kinase BIN2 and acts as a corepressor of BES1 in brassinosteroid signaling pathway in Arabidopsis.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2012. 109(49): p. 20142-7
  51. Gendron JM, et al.
    Brassinosteroids regulate organ boundary formation in the shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2012. 109(51): p. 21152-7
  52. Hao J,Yin Y,Fei SZ
    Brassinosteroid signaling network: implications on yield and stress tolerance.
    Plant Cell Rep., 2013. 32(7): p. 1017-30
  53. Guo R, et al.
    BZR1 and BES1 participate in regulation of glucosinolate biosynthesis by brassinosteroids in Arabidopsis.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2013. 64(8): p. 2401-12
  54. Li QF,He JX
    Mechanisms of signaling crosstalk between brassinosteroids and gibberellins.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2013. 8(7): p. e24686
  55. Jiang WB, et al.
    Brassinosteroid regulates seed size and shape in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2013. 162(4): p. 1965-77
  56. Tsugama D,Liu S,Takano T
    Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G protein β subunit, AGB1, regulates brassinosteroid signalling independently of BZR1.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2013. 64(11): p. 3213-23
  57. Lin W, et al.
    Inverse modulation of plant immune and brassinosteroid signaling pathways by the receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase BIK1.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2013. 110(29): p. 12114-9
  58. Zhang Y, et al.
    The cyclophilin CYP20-2 modulates the conformation of BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1, which binds the promoter of FLOWERING LOCUS D to regulate flowering in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2013. 25(7): p. 2504-21
  59. Wang C, et al.
    Identification of BZR1-interacting proteins as potential components of the brassinosteroid signaling pathway in Arabidopsis through tandem affinity purification.
    Mol. Cell Proteomics, 2013. 12(12): p. 3653-65
  60. Wu P,Gao HB,Zhang LL,Xue HW,Lin WH
    Phosphatidic acid regulates BZR1 activity and brassinosteroid signal of Arabidopsis.
    Mol Plant, 2014. 7(2): p. 445-7
  61. Wang Y, et al.
    Strigolactone/MAX2-induced degradation of brassinosteroid transcriptional effector BES1 regulates shoot branching.
    Dev. Cell, 2013. 27(6): p. 681-8
  62. Lozano-Dur
    The transcriptional regulator BZR1 mediates trade-off between plant innate immunity and growth.
    Elife, 2013. 2: p. e00983
  63. Oh E,Zhu JY,Ryu H,Hwang I,Wang ZY
    TOPLESS mediates brassinosteroid-induced transcriptional repression through interaction with BZR1.
    Nat Commun, 2014. 5: p. 4140
  64. Miyaji T, et al.
    Brassinosteroid-related transcription factor BIL1/BZR1 increases plant resistance to insect feeding.
    Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 2014. 78(6): p. 960-8
  65. Singh AP, et al.
    Activity of the brassinosteroid transcription factors BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT1 and BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1-ETHYL METHANESULFONATE-SUPPRESSOR1/BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT2 blocks developmental reprogramming in response to low phosphate availability.
    Plant Physiol., 2014. 166(2): p. 678-88
  66. Jin J, et al.
    An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel Transcription Factors.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2015. 32(7): p. 1767-73
  67. Shigeta T, et al.
    Heat shock protein 90 acts in brassinosteroid signaling through interaction with BES1/BZR1 transcription factor.
    J. Plant Physiol., 2015. 178: p. 69-73
  68. Lee HS, et al.
    Brassinazole resistant 1 (BZR1)-dependent brassinosteroid signalling pathway leads to ectopic activation of quiescent cell division and suppresses columella stem cell differentiation.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2015. 66(15): p. 4835-49
  69. Li QF,He JX
    BZR1 Interacts with HY5 to Mediate Brassinosteroid- and Light-Regulated Cotyledon Opening in Arabidopsis in Darkness.
    Mol Plant, 2016. 9(1): p. 113-25